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The idea of progress : how can consumer behavior improve and why can it be a problem for the society ?

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After the election of Nelson Mandela, South Africa changed a lot and decided to place a bid to host the World Cup in 2006 but they lost against Germany by 1 vote. Finally, they won it in 2010. Soweto was rebuilt, it has become a different place. It looks like any suburbs in the world and is an attractive place with mall and restaurants. More of the city, the inhabitants change because of the gentrification. The rents are so expensive and backs from the township can’t afford to live there. A new black upper class called Black Diamonds lives in the former township.

As a conclusion, we can notice that South Africa is one of the most powerful country in the world. It is a member of the BRICS. In 1995, the Rugby Wold Cup was hosted and won by South Africa, and was the first Rugby World Cup in which every match was held in one country. A movie shows this story, Invictus. It is a mix between South Africa rugby team and the political history.

Notion 2: Space and exchanges

I’m going to talk about space and exchanges. Let me give you a definition of exchange. It is an act of giving and receiving something else in return, it can be information, people or items. During this notion, we studied the economic story of Ireland.

How did Irish people react to economic changes in their country?

Firstly, i’m going to talk about the recession in Ireland. Them, I’m going to highlight the time after boom.

- From recession to boom (1840 - 1999)

The problems began in Ireland in 1840s with the Great Famine also called Irish Potato Famine. It engendered one million deaths and a massive emigration. Until 1950s, it was the turning point. The young Work-hand left for England which represent employment. In Ireland, it was hard to find a well paid job, the only jobs were those with dangerous working conditions. Moire of unemployment Ireland has experienced successive waves of poverty, lack of opportunity and even famine.

After 1950, good news finally arrived. There was an increase of house demand because there are more and more people in Eire. Thanks to the economic growth, Ireland grew up the european ranking and jobs are created because of the innovation. IT company such as DELL, created jobs and the percentage of unemployment nosedived by 50%. The immigration is also important. Workers from foreign countries are looking for a work.

In December 1999, Irish people celebrated the new millennium. Ireland survived the tough times and became an economic hub. At the peak of the boom, the government did not know what to do with the money so they smashed the cash. They were spending money like there were no tomorrow but people are worried about future because they remembered their past.

II. From boom to bust (2000 - today)

After the new millennium, the crash began in Ireland. From 1990 to 2000 unemployment skyrocketed. The lowest rate was between 2000 and 2006, it leveled of at 4% and remained stable. From 2008 to 2010, it doubled from around 6,5 to around 13%. People went to bankrupt after 10 years of economic bliss. A man in a document dated in 2011 explains that he does not want to emigrate but if he can’t get hired, he will have no other choice but to look for a job somewhere else. He shows a message like: « Save me from emigration » because he wants to stay in Ireland but it is difficult to find a job. Even they receive unemployment benefit this is not enough to stay in Eire.

In addition to the job problems, house prices nosedived between 2007 and the middle of 2009. The values of housing suddenly collapsed as every wanted to sell their housing thanks to mortgage. This period is called the crisis of subprime. When the companies had relocated to Eastern Europe, the banks crashed and people wanted to have their money back from the investment. In Dublin, Third of the houses are empty. Tracy and his husband bought a house but they won’t be able to pay their mortgage like one out of seven Irish families. The population has to pay the price because of the government’s lack of checking. The call themselves the « sacrificed generation ».

As a conclusion we can notice that the crises of subprime has an impact on every countries of the world. Since 2015, the situation in Ireland gets better. Nevertheless, after the pic of the boom in 2007, living in the suburbs of Dublin is dear. We can see that the Irish diaspora has grown to the extent an estimated 70 million people are of Irish descent.

Notion 1: Myth ans heroes

I’m going to talk about myth and heroes. A myth is a traditional story concerning the early history of a people or explaining a natural phenomenon, and typically involving supernatural beings or events. A hero is in mythology and folklore a person of superman qualities who is admired fir his or her courage or outstanding achievement.

How can a mere human being become an inspiration to every other people becoming in fact a hero?

Firstly, i’m going to talk about he idea of american dream through two success stories. Then, i’m going to develop the notion of hero with the wish of helping people.

- The American dream

When you ask a child about what he wants to become later, he always answers something like professional footballer or singer for instance but only few of them will success. Climbing the social ladder is not impossible. Oprah Winfrey did it. Today, she is the most powerful and influential woman in the world. During her childhood, she moved all around the country to live with various family members even before she reached her teens. She was very poor but she got a full scholarship and integrated university. From the local radio station to her own top show on television, Oprah Winfrey worked a lot to make a name by herself. Most of her career was in front the camera but not all hosting a talk show. She played in Color purple by Spielberg and gave her voice to children’s features.

Vince Papale, a former professional football player, has also lived a success story. In the early 1970s, he lost his teaching job and his wife and son left him. The only thing that made him happy is when he played a rough and tumble version of football with his friends. He had always dreamt to become a professional player but he never had the chance until he met Dick Vermeil. In 1976, the new coach of Philadelphia Eagles was impressed by his determination and energy. He finally became the oldest rookie in NLF. Everybody told him he was


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