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Lettre type en anglais

Par   •  15 Avril 2018  •  1 480 Mots (6 Pages)  •  554 Vues

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The World Bank quotes estimates by the Council for Development and Reconstruction showing a 58% share of connection to sewers in 2002. Water supply has been the smallest in Beirut. The remaining buildings either use cesspools and septic tanks or simply release raw sewage directly into the environment. A series of Buildings and Establishments in 1996–97 had estimated that only about 37% of the buildings in Lebanon were connected to a sewer network at that time, indicating that the share increased substantially between 1997 and 2002 but dropped again in the present day.

Problem

The quality of water service provision is poor. According to official figures from 2009, the average water availability per day was as follows: 22 hours in the North, 10 hours in the Bekaa, 8 hours in the South, and for Beirut-Mount but only 2 hours in summer. There is not a single village or city in Lebanon that receives enough supply of water.Especially in summer, water shortages are common. For example, in Nabatieh Governorate water reached customers only three times a week in 2007. In Greater Beirut, water supply drops to 3 hours per day during the summer. According to the above-mentioned 2008 survey, the average Lebanese household received 4 hours per day in summer and 6 hours in winter. Only one quarter of Lebanese households received water every day. Water supply was worst in Beirut where this share was only 10%. Bad water quality supply impose high costs on households to overcome these deficiencies. Buying water from trucks and the purchase of bottled water are common. Water is also commonly stored in roof tanks, which imposes both an additional cost and jeopardizes water quality. Many households also use pumps to make sure that water reaches the upper floors of houses, which imposes more costs on households. Low pressure of water supply are caused by the non continuous electricity supply.

The failure to provide a continuous water supply appear to be a major issue for the Lebanese,but they can still live because of water storage tanks are a common use. What matters is the water quality, which is often bad.

Purpose

The purpose of this report is to show to difficulties of pumping water to all regions in Lebanon and the bad bad quality of water pumped in other . This report will include one or two real cases that are suffering from the issue above. Also some solutions will be discussed in order to improve this situation for the long term.

Scope

The report discusses the causes of the inability of pumping water to every single area in Lebanon especially in Beirut. I will suggest solution that will increase the supply of water threw winter thus increasing the ability to pump water to all the regions in Lebanon . This research took a lot of time to be accomplished based on interviews, researches, and trusted sources.

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Body

There a lot of discussion in Lebanon for water resources management plans. The diversity of theories about how to manage this wealth, some of them adopt a dam construction project, even though this strategy has not took the time it deserves in-depth discussion and in conjunction with all aspects of sustainable development. Some of them adopt building projects mountain ponds, to collect necessary water quantities to overcome the needs of dry months water. And others believe the reliance on groundwater fortune, to cover the needs of all sectors of the economy and the human use. There is some serious requests to reflect on all of these options, and the adoption is consistent with the nature and needs of each region, with the exclusion of a very large cost of major projects, and associated with a significant risk to the environment, fragile and delicate in many parts of Lebanon. Especially since Lebanon's environment, diversity and richness, is the real wealth of this country.

There are other dimensions of water resources management policies in Lebanon. It is rarely talked about, not in the context of research in a rational investment in water, particularlyin domestic use and industrial use, and not in the context of research in water quality, and policies that protect them.

With the understanding that the needs of Lebanon for water are increasing day after day, and that the ability to provide these waters, quantities, and in such manner, the issue becomes more complicated by the day. With the deficit water interests in all areas to meet the growing needs, acquires talk about the protection of water resources.

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References

https://www.water4.org/adgrants-landing-pages/african-water-crisis/?gclid=CjwKEAjw86e4BRCnzuWGlpjLoUcSJACaHG55PTIMrA7y2F6Ic9zZU_eRSQiPP8J-QCw3tRHRO3fvqhoCAl7w_wcB

http://kanat.jsc.vsc.edu/student/spatafora/setup.htm

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