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Invasion through which the country was peopled and 1st political structure was organised.

- The unification of Great Britain

How those fragmented kingdom were together? England unified by the Norman in the mid-tenth century, W.the Conqueror. They and their sucessors the Angevin kings (1154-1485) established a powerful monarchy that extended royal influence into Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

Then union with Wales because conquered by England in 1282 and full parliamentary union took place in 1536

Then union with Scotland in 1603 ( king in common) , definitive en 1707 (Scotland lost his parlement) : Act of Union : official text for the unification

Then union with Ireland : 1801 : “The united Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland” is adopted.

Irish independence : The Irish free State : 1921 but 6 Nothern Irish counties remaining part of the UK , 1937 : become a republique.

- A disunited kingdom?

Is the United Kingdom really so united? Referendum in Scotland last year 2014, about independence, decided to live the UK, but it didn’t work

Each of the 4 nations has is own flag + patron saint + own sport teams

- The rise of nationalisms

UK formed by 4 nations : England, Wales, Scotland, Nothern Island : difficult to keep everyone together. 1970s : economic crisis , people who belong to the three smallest nation of the UK started to ask the question : should we not becoming independence , isn’t London and UK source of our pb? For a nb of Wales or Scotish people, be belonging to England, London, by the queen, is seen as smthg humiliated = colonialism. The crises is not solved, sothis feeling remains and goes stronger until now. London had to find an answer : Blair reform

- The Blair reforms

Blair : prime minister in 1997 - 2007 : 10 years , after Thatcher

Make reform about UK, consisted in giving a parlement + gouvt to each of the 4 nations. Way to make happy people who wanted more autonomie; even if it is not a total independence : limited but self gouvt. It was introduced at the beginning at his 1st terms : 1998 :

Scotland Act (Holyrood) + Gvt of Wales Act + Belfast Agreement / Good Friday Agreement. (Nothern Irish, Stormont)

Holyrood: place where scotish parlement is build in Edinburg

Stormont : where the northern irish parlement

- After Britain?

UK could disappear : Scotish people are inspiring to a complete independence: referendum on September 2014 on the question in Scotland : the answer was NO. But a very tight victory for the no. Yes 45% , No 55%

If an other referendum takes place, we can imagine a victory for independence. How could a Scotish nation works with UE?

National hymn : God save the Queen , 1746 after the crushing of the Scotland, embodies the Unity of the UK, speak of all the citizens, but in fact it is a celebration of the Scotish defaite! = give the feeling of the 2ds class citizens

during ceremonies, royal wedding, before football matches

1977 : version of the national hymn by the Sex Pistols, duringQueen Elisabeth II's silver Jubilee 25years after her coronation, against monarchie, against british institution

“Briton” = citizen of UK

“Britannia” = name that the Rmans gave to southern British , name given to the femal embodinf of Britain, she wear a helmet and holding a trident.

“John Bull” = Uncle Sam in the USA, fictionnal character who is supposed to personify Englishness.


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