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Comment l’analyse des politiques publiques offre des pistes d’analyse des acteurs, des décisions dans la lutte contre Boko Haram?

Par   •  25 Juin 2018  •  1 816 Mots (8 Pages)  •  123 Vues

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boosted its military presence along the Nigerian border to curtail the activities of the terrorists.

 To help the army back on track, the government is now arming local vigilantes in towns and villages on the border to fight Boko Haram. The vigilantes have been given handmade machetes, some Kalashnikovs, bows and arrows, local made guns, motorbikes and bicycles to pursue the militants. The government hopes that with the expertise of the local vigilantes, they can help the army to gain control of the security situation.

 More than 50 vigilantes have been given the incentives to go on the frontline to face the militants. The vigilantes claim to know the terrain like their finger tips, and are capable of outmaneuvering the insurgents.

 The vigilantes are already on the ground hunting for Boko Haram militants. Local residents in the affected areas are confident that the vigilantes will defeat Boko Haram in the area.

 Cameroon is part of an 8,700-member Multinational Task Force to fight the terrorists.

 Borno hunters volunteer to join military fighting Boko Haram: Hunters in Borno State called on the military to allow them to join in the war against insurgents in Sambisa Forest. Their leader said that the call became imperative because they were familiar with the terrain at the dreaded forest, the hideout and operational base of the terrorists. He said that the military should align them with members of the vigilance group for effective result.

Step 3 :Implementation/Decision

 The Security Council demanded that Boko Haram immediately and indisputably cease all hostilities and all abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law and disarm and demobilize. The UN human rights office emphasized that the use of a child to detonate a bomb was “not only morally repugnant but constituted an egregious form of child exploitation under international law.”

 The United States sent military equipment and a small contingent of troops to Cameroon to fight Boko Haram terrorism. General David Rodriguez, commander of the U.S. Africa Command, AFRICOM, said about 90 of the 300 promised U.S. troops were already on their way to Cameroon. Among the military equipment being supplied by the United States were armored vehicles with a capacity to detect land mines.

 International Organisations

Human Rights Watch said as the participating government and the African Union draw up the Task Force’s operational plan, they should:

 Include lawyers with experience of applying the laws of war in non-international armed conflicts, war crimes, and command responsibility;

 Include military police – or those exercising the provost marshal function – mandated to respond to disciplinary lapses by soldiers;

 Include in the mandate of the international force the need to develop and publish rules of engagement that prioritize minimizing harm to civilians and civilian objects during military operations;

 Include a strong and well-staffed AU human rights monitoring team to work alongside the regional military force to monitor adherence to international humanitarian and human rights law by all parties, and report publicly and regularly to the AU Peace and Security Council or the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights on its findings and recommendations;

 Ensure that all credible allegations of violations of international human rights and humanitarian law by any party are promptly, thoroughly, and impartially investigated, and that those responsible for crimes are appropriately prosecuted. The investigators, prosecutors and judges should be outside the military chain of command;

 Establish a strategy to improve the treatment of combatants, many of whom have been abducted and pressed into service by Boko Haram, after they defect or surrender, including establishing reception points for these combatants;

 Ensure that any children captured or escaped from Boko Haram custody are promptly transferred to the care of UNICEF, or appropriate Nigerian or nongovernmental organizations, and reunited with their families as soon as possible, taking the best interests of the child into account; and

 Draw on and integrate expertise from relevant UN sources regarding human rights and civilian protection challenges, including the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict, and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict.

Phase 4: Evaluation of the public policy

There have been few latest developments on the attacks. Authourities are still to make official statements but news concerning new attacks has been very few.

Phase 5: Completion of the policy

Attacks from the terrorist group are still ongoing. Even though a lot has been done to curb or even stop the violence.

Incrementalism

Authourities who had first decided to arm just the army in the fight against Boko Haram, finally resolved to train and equip local village hunters to assist the army in fighting against the terrorist. This decision was taken after realizing that the army cannot be everywhere and the local villagers have an excellent mastery of the terrain and terrorist routines.

Conclusion

In sum, we have analyzed the role played by actors and decision makers in the fight against Boko Haram from the participation of the United States of America, the United nations Organisation right down to local vigilantes, not forgetting official regional and national authourities and the policies put in place. Some of these policies have been improved over time as was the case with the arming local vigilantes. As for evaluation of the policies it is still to be done but it has surely helped to slow down or stop Boko Haram’s advancement.

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