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Par   •  23 Novembre 2018  •  19 121 Mots (77 Pages)  •  125 Vues

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This culture, France, headed by the Romans, made by the Gauls (slaves) had over the centuries for the maintainer the abbots, bishops and princes of the middle-age.

The average age in the name of the glory of God, a monastic viticulture flourishes, the "Fathers" brewers of beer doing the same. The drunkenness always repressed, becomes a fished. The wine market is accompanied of loads, taxs and privileges earlier promulgated, sometimes abolished. In this time, the peasant world and urban dweller drink of the wine as long as it is not become vinegar.

The Renaissance This time mark the development of the wine-pleasure therefore a drink of quality. The birth of the great vintages will take place during the XVII and XVIIIéme centuries. The taxation by the granting brings the regulation of Guinguettes, tavernas and cabarets with closing time mandatory fines for the tenants and users. These cabarets " Parliaments of the people", as love say Balzac well later, lead to the French Revolution and an ephemeral "Wine of Freedom" tax-exempt … the time of a revolution.

This first part of the history of the alcohol that can call "The Archeology of the alcohol" remains very current between the use regulated protected, glorified, sacred of mead to wine to beer and other fermented beverages. Little place was given to the distilled beverages (still) of Arab origin for some, Greek for the other. This "water of life", this spirit of wine, manufactured by the distillers and sold only to apothecaries, will be the support elixir of dyes and other remedies in the eighteenth century. The word alcohol just born and it is another story developed in the second part history of alcohol to modern times.


Did you know that the Europeans have had to wait for the transatlantic shipping of Christopher Columbus, in 1492, to discover the tobacco? That the introduction of the tobacco in France is fit by the intermediary Jean Nicot toward 1560? That in addition to his penchant for poisons, Catherine de Medici is in part responsible for the introduction of the tobacco in France ? Return on the small history of tobacco.

From Antiquity to the Second World War, discover the major dates in the history of the tobacco.

Of antiquity to Christopher Columbus

The smoke was long associated with rituals and beliefs, funeral earlier festive earlier. The excavations carried out in South America revealed a ancestral use of the pipe dating back nearly a thousand years before our era. In the archipelago of the Caribbean and in South America, tobacco was smoked daily or on the occasion of the feasts.

But the west do smoked only after the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus.

This last setpoint, in his Journal of Navigation of the 28 March 1492, have seen in Cuba of the Indians: "Men and women, with a small Tison lit, consisting of a kind of grass which they aspired the perfume following the custom".

The XVI th Century and the incredible extension of tobacco.

Later, in 1527, the Bishop Bartholomew de las Casas confirmed in its General History of the Indies the use of CIGAR by the Indians: "The grass which the Indians aspire the smoke is packed in a dry leaf (…). The Indians illuminate by one end and suck hument or by the other end, in aspiring internally the smoke, with their breath".

Unlike the decoctions known to Europeans, tobacco is not associated among the Indians to no virtue therapeutic or sacred.

These adventurers in the New World were among the first western smokers, they were also the first to report dried tobacco leaves and to smoking by pleasure.

During the XVI th century, tobacco is lived assign many therapeutic virtues which were generally of the product Miracle.

Jean Nicot, ambassador of France in Portugal, would not be entered in the history if a merchant returning of America had not yielded a few leaves of tobacco. The ambassador, in which tobacco appeared as a miracle grass, decided to send to the Queen Catherine de Medici, for the cure its migraine headaches. The story does not say if the Royal migraines were cured but the Ambassador gave its name to the plant. Tobacco won then in reputation in France under the name of grass-to-the-queen.

The monk André Thévet tried to denounce injustice according to which it is the first to have introduced the tobacco in France. But without success…

As well appears the term Nicotiana: this grass is then expected to heal all kinds of diseases.

The use of tobacco spread like wildfire throughout the whole of Europe.

• In Italy, in 1561;

• In England, in 1565;

• In Germany toward 1570; in Vienna, in the same years;

• In 1580, it succeeds in Turkey, true door to Asia;

• Fifteen years later it is the Korea, Japan and China;

• for Africa, the entry is made by Morocco in 1593.

As soon as the end of the XVI th century, tobacco is known in the whole world and it ready so many therapeutic virtues.

The xviith Century and the first objections

the worldwide extension of tobacco continues although it raises more and more attempts to opposition. The therapeutic virtues are put in doubt and the sovereign of England Jacques i er becomes an opponent of tobacco. In Persia, the Shah Abbas, referring to the Koran, fact decide the lips of smokers. In Constantinople, the sultan Amurat IV hanging or burns the pipe smokers and tobacco. In Moscow, Michel Federowich threat the smokers of 60 blows with a stick on the soles of the feet. In 1642, the Pope Urban VIII prohibits the consumption of tobacco, under penalty of excommunication.

France shall adopt an attitude more nuanced and enters the pecuniary benefit of such a trade. By the intermediary of Richelieu, then of Colbert, the State perceives a strong income in taxing considerably this product. Whereas it becomes chic of snuff its tobacco and not more of the chewing tobacco or smoking, the state gets annually, as soon as the end of the XVIII E, nearly 30 billion.



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