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Study Guide Questions for History

Par   •  25 Octobre 2017  •  5 559 Mots (23 Pages)  •  113 Vues

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14- What lessons did the Soviet Union draw from WWI, and how did it shape Russian foreign policy?

Because Soviets were Communists, they were convinced that the capitalists will go to war, and another war in Europe will happen anyway. So, they decided to stay out of the war, remain neutral, but encourage other nations to fight Russian’s enemies.

15- What lessons did France draw from WWI, and how did it shape French foreign policy?

France lacked a coherent foreign policy and that can be explained by weakness. French leaders had two conclusions:

1- France needed powerful allied

2- If there is another war with Germany it is going to be on French soil. So, the entire focus of French military building was about defensive strategies.

16- What lessons did Great Britain draw from WWI, and how did it shape British foreign policy?

1-If there is a local war in Europe and people don’t solve it peacefully it will become general war. So, the conclusion that the British leaders reached was: keep the peace and don’t let any local wars break out, keeping local wars from becoming general wars is worth appeasing the aggressors.

2- Britain should never have a big land army again. Britain reduced its army to the size of the reduced German army.

17- What lessons did Germany draw from WWI, and how did it shape German foreign policy?

Germany could not go to war under any circumstances due to the weakness of the country (their army is reduced by the treaty; the economy was slow because they had to pay reparations).

It is the defeat of Germany and the belief that Germany was stabbed in the back by the politicians that actually for the first time allows parties that appealed to the pride of the German people to become influential in the parliamentary circles.

18- Wha0t two conclusions did Hitler reach after the German defeat in World War I?

1- Jews and Communists had caused Germany’s defeat.

2-He is the German Messiah. He has been chosen by faith to lead the German people in a coming era of racial struggle and conquest. He alone was the person capable of restoring Germany to greatness.

19- What was the Concert System?

A shared system of negotiations and conventions aimed at preserving the balance of power between the major nations of Europe. Because of their commitment to the balance of power, conflicts remained localize and did not turn into general wars at least until 1914. The Concert System broke down during WWI.

20- How did the unification of Germany and Italy illustrate the effectiveness of the Concert System?

Both nations emerged in the 19th century without causing a major war. Both Germany and Italy were able to unite many small kingdoms into new nations without causing a war that spread throughout Europe.

21. How did imperialism help keep the peace in Europe

By absorbing energies and the national pride of the European Nations. Instead of focusing their energies on fighting each other, they could acquire foreign empires to enhance the power and the wealth of their nations.

22- How did the Washington Conference of 1921 prevent a naval arms race?

It promoted a balance of power between Britain, the US, Japan. The deal was: for every 5 tons of warships that the US and Britain construct, Japan would be allowed to construct 3 tons. The idea was to fix Japan at an inferior position like a junior partner in the naval forces of the world.

23-How did the Daws Plan of 1924 help preserve international peace?

Britain and France agreed to reduce German Reparations. In exchange American banks would make enormous loans to Germany so they can pay the reduced amount.

24-What conflict was the League of Nations able to resolve in 1925?

It resolved a conflict between Greece and Bulgaria

25-Why did the Treaty of Locarno in 1925 seem to guarantee the peace of Europe?

In that treaty Italy and Britain pledge to guarantee the French/German border. Britain and France pledge to come to France defense would Germany to invade France again. Also, under the treaty of Locarno, Germany agreed to permanently demilitarize the Rhineland.

26-What was the impact of the October 1929 stock market crash on European banks?

All European banks flounder except for the Bank of France.

27-How did the French obstruction contribute to British and to German irrationality?

1-The British disconnected the value of the Pound from the Gold Standards. The British economy recovered and allowed the British to serve like a mediator between France and Germany. But, France opposition to disarmament treaties in Britain meant British Politicians could not fulfill their campaign promises which made them tend to disregard French warning about Germany in the 30’s

2- France had closed its wallet to the Germans when they needed it most. That made it easy for extreme Nationalists politicians to convince the majority of the Germans that they were broke because of foreigners trying to keep the German economy weak.

3- German politicians turned to foreign successes to make up for their failure to help the domestic economy:

- 1932 Germany repudiate the reparations

- 1932 Ended the restrictions placed on the German armed forces by the Treaty of Versailles.

28-How did Hitler destroy his political opposition?

1- 1933 The Reichstag Fire: Hitler turned it into a plot by communist and socialist to take over the country. He used that to drive leaders of the leftist party either to exile or to concentration camps.

2- By the summer of 1933 Hitler made an agreement with the Pope to cover his track when he banned the Catholic Zentrum Party and drove its leaders to exile.

3- He forces the other Nationalist parties to become Nazis. So, by the end of 1933 there are


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