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British Politics

Par   •  17 Octobre 2017  •  12 485 Mots (50 Pages)  •  498 Vues

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wood), it reduced the cost and increased the speed.

Railways really transformed landscapes, 1845-1880: The Railway Mania, the dev of railway had a deep effect on the conception of time and space. Space was anihilated by time. Distance were reduced thanks to the speed. According to S. Smiles, railways reduced England to 1/6 of its size. This was a revolution for people. The decison to have a standard time all over Britain was taken.

1848: telegraph, 1,600 miles of Railway lines equiped with telegraph linking together 200 cables.

1850s: Greenwich time, today the world reference,1884: it became the reference for the world.

1851: first Atlantic Cable (Britain /US)

1866: very few parts of the dev world were out of reach, newspaper were the main users of telegraphs. Most of the pop could read due to religion.

– Mentalities: Influence of religion, protestantism: material wealth. If you are wealthy, it’s bc you worked hard and you deserve it, it is a reward. To Catholics: if you have money you must give it. Work was seen as a religion virtue.

1851: Irish workers were called the "working bees".

Early 19th Century : dvpt of new treaty of eco progress

Mercantilism (selling as many goods outside) vs eco- liberalism (free-trade)

– Mercantilism : implenmentation of protectionist policies increase in export to obtain a trade surplus. Eco liberalism: John Locke, The Second Treatise on Gov (1960) : Notion of private property and contract. Social Contract: society as joint stock company comprising stakeholders. Considering that society was not always stable.

Adam Smith : The wealth of Nations (1776) : labor value and exchange value, the value of something is the relationship between the work and its remuneration. The labor value : the quantity of work needed to produce something. The exchange value: the amount countable you get by selling. --> the law of supply and demand : the market was supposed to decide of the prices not the State. The market prices comes into line with a natural price ( real cost of producing )

Adam Ricardo : on the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817): a laissez-faire policy of industrial growth based on the importation of cheap food and the exportation of industrail goods. To him workers were like tools, he advocated the lowest wages. Possible. Against labor laws/ against poor laws


– 1820: a petition signed by London merchants sent to the Brit parliament asking for the abolishment of tariffs.

– 1846: repeal of Corn Laws. Taxes on imported Corn. A sign that the British parliament were more and more accepting liberalism.

– 1849: Abolition of Navigation Acts: They were adopted in the 1660s: it stated that British Goods had to be transported on British Ships. The abolition meant that when merchants wanted to import/ export goods, they could chose the compagny. A sort of liberalisation of the market.

– 1860: Treaty of free Trade with France

Quick Chronology

– 1830: William IV

– 1832: Representation of the people Act (right to vote for more men)

– 1833: Factory Act : banned children under 9 from factories

--> abolition of Slavery Act (slavery abolished in 1807), abolitionnists thought that stopping the trade will made the slave owners treat them better. --> 2 conditions: a system of apprenticeship for slaves. / Money, damage to the slave owner, 20m pound compensation.

– 1834: Poor law Amendment Act: created workhouses places where poor people sent to live and work . Work for nothing because they were given food and shelter.

– 1835: Melbourne, Whig, PM

– 1836: Lowering of the stamp Duty on newspaper. (Enforcement of the poor law Amendment Act )

– 1837: Accession of Victoria

– 1838: The people’s Charter: movement asking for universal suffrage. (list of demands) ---> The Great Charter = Magna Carter

Anti-Corn law association created in Manchester

– 1839: Anti Corn Law League / First Chartist petition sent to parliament asking for universal suffrage.

– 1841: Peel, Tory, PM

– 1842: Second Chartist petition

– 1844: Bank charter Act (stabilise the economy and say only the bank of England can issue notes) / Railway Act (to give permission, facilitate the process of building, construction of railways)

– 1845: Potato Famine in Ireland / Free Trade Budget

--> Irish People emigrated to England (Liverpool in particularly)

--> 1M people died / 1,5M emigrated out of a population 8M people

– 1846: Russel, Whig PM /Repeal of the Corn laws (laws to introduce free trade)

– 1847: Factory Act (introduce 10h working day)

– 1848: Third Chartist petition

– 1849: Repeal of the navigation Acts (British goods carried out only on British ships = end of this obligation)

– 1850: Death of Robert Peel

– 1851: GE --> Great Exhibition

– 1854: Crimean War (1845-56)

– 1855: Palmerston PM

– 1859: Disreali’s Reform Bill (act= law/ bill= project which fall)

– 1860: Rusell’s Reform Bill (didn’t work too)

– 1861: Death of the Prince Consort

– 1866: Earl of Derby, Tory, PM/

--> Reform Bill (Rusell/ Gladstone) most sucessful / Hyde Park Riots

– 1867: Representation of the People Act (give the right to vote too more men but not yet universal suffrage)

– 1868: Gladstone, Liberal , PM ( whig faction = liberal)

– 1870:


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