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Common Law

Par   •  27 Novembre 2018  •  4 795 Mots (20 Pages)  •  511 Vues

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1660-1714 Restoration (Stuarts)

1679 Habeas Corpus Act (excerpt in the book, pp. 22-23)

1685-1688 James II

1688-89 Glorious Revolution: king deposed, Bill of Rights (Parliament takes precedence over king)

1689-1702 William III of Orange and Mary II

1707 Act of Union: Scotland, England and Wales form United Kingdom. Parliament of Scotland disbanded (≠ Scottish Parliament = institution actuelle) = end of Scottish independence.

1714 Hanoverians : George I ;George II, George III, George IV, William IV

1800 Act of Union: Ireland joins UK

1807 abolition of the slave trade

1832 Great Reform Act (middle class get right of vote)

1833 abolition of slavery in the colonies

1837-1901 Victoria

1901 House of Saxe-Coburg later renamed Windsor

1918 Male universal suffrage ≥ 21 + married women aged 30 and above

1922 Anglo-Irish Treaty. Ireland partitioned, Northern Ireland remains British, the South becomes the Irish Free State

1928 All women allowed to vote

1936-1951 George VI (the King’s Speech)

1952 Elizabeth II

1958 Life Peerages Act

1969 Voting age lowered to 16

1998 Human Rights Act

1998 Scotland Act, Government of Wales Act create Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales (opened in 1999)

1999 House of Lords Act

2005 Constitutional Reform Act

2014 Referendum on Scottish independence

*

SÉANCE 2

Reminder:

B - The people: human geography

• Population: 64m (2014): sixty-four million people:

Travail sur la langue :

Revoir les adjectifs numéraux en anglais

Million/thousand/hundred/billion : invariable en anglais

Mais on peut dire: billions/millions/thousands/hundreds of people (des milliards de gens) car là il s’agit de noms

People: rappel un mot dénombrable mais toujours pluriel : there are few people (peu de gens) cf. les quantifieurs, si on avait eu affaire à un indénombrable on aurait dit there is little people, there is much people MAIS NON on dit « there are few people, there are many people »

People = une entité plurielle sans « s » : People are unhappy about the situation

On peut dire one two, three peoples avec un “s” mais l’on a là affaire à un mot différent qui ne signifie pas « les gens » mais un peuple, deux peuples, etc.

England: 84%; Scotland 8.4%; Wales : 4.8%; NI: 2.9%

80% urban or suburban

- An ageing society: low fertility rate. More and more old people among whites. Non-white communities are comparatively younger.

- An increasingly multicultural society

2001 (%)

2011 (%)

Whites

92.1

87.2

Asians

4.4

6,9

Black/ Black British

1.9

3

Other

1.6

3

Britain seems to be a ‘closed’ country, but in fact it has always been a country of immigration: Celts, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings, Normans, French Huguenots, Jews. Even their current royal family is German (House of Windsor was originally Saxe-Coburg and Gotha). There were of course exchanges between the four nations, many people coming from Ireland in the 19th c.

In the 1990s and 2000s, Eastern Europeans (Poles = les Polonais), French...

Rappel:

More recently extra European emigration has developed. Caribbean people, Africans, Asians came after WWII, a « new immigration » coming from the Empire and the Commonwealth. For the first time, a large part of the immigrants were not white and not Christian. Many of these people are second or third generation born in the UK and see themselves alternatively as part British, part foreign or entirely British or entirely foreign.

Each type of immigrant brought new conceptions of the law and forced the law to adapt. Romans and Normans had the deepest influence. The more recent influx of a large non-Christian, especially Muslim, population has led to interrogation about British identity and ‘Britishness’. British society can be described as multi-faith but also as secularised. Yet as a concession to Islam, sharia is now being used by solicitors (notaires) to interpret succession rules (wills) of Muslims.

Religious affiliation

2001 (%)

2011 (%)

Christian

71.6

59.5

Muslim

2.7

4.4

Hindu/Sikh

1

1.3

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