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Expose Churchill anglais

Par   •  8 Octobre 2017  •  2 788 Mots (12 Pages)  •  296 Vues

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2- Relation with the USA

He had good relationship with Roosevelt between 1939 & 194. They exchanged an estimated 1 700 letters & telegrams & met 11 times. US helped UK secure vital food, oil and munitions via North Atlantic shipping routes. Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe First, the Declaration by the United Nations & other war policies (politique de guerre).

3- The relation with the Union Soviet

When Hitler invaded the Soviet union, he was a vehement anti-communist, famously stated “If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons” (Si Hitler envahissait l'Enfer, je pourrais trouver l'occasion de faire une recommandation favorable au Diable à la Chambre des Communes). Soon British supplies & tanks were flowing to help the Soviet Union. During October 1944, he were in Moscow to met Stalin. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. The most significant of these meetings was held on 9 October 1944 in the Kremlin between Churchill and Stalin. During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed. The Russian referred to him as the “British Bulldog”.

4-Dresden Bombings

Between the 13 & the 15/02/1945, British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with estimate 200 000 refugees & wounded, so it was one of the most controversial Western Allied action of the war. Churchill has been criticised a lot for it. Some people said that it was a “war crime” (crime de guerre) but it was for expedite the defeat of Germany.

5- The end of the war

In June 1944, the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazis back into Germany. Being attacked on 3 different fronts by the Allied the 7/05/1945 The Germany surrender. He said that a final cease fire would come into effect at 1 minute past midnight on the 8/05/1945. He concluded that the UK and the US must anticipate the Red Army ignoring previously agreed frontiers & agreements in Europe. According to the Operation Unthinkable plan ordered by Churchill the 3rd WW could have started on the 1st July 1945 with a sudden attack by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee (les chefs britaniques du commité personnel) as military infeasible.

III- Post WW2 to today

He was not reselected at the post of 1 Minister because people thought he was better in wartime than in peacetime, so his was consider as a warlord. It's he who has called the separation between East Germany and West Germany the “Iron Curtain”.

1-European Unity

He was inspired by Aristide Briand's ideas. Churchill gave a speech at Zurich on the 19/09/1946 in which he called for “a kind of United State of Europe” centred around a Franco-German partnership, with Britain & the Commonwealth. Churchill's speeches helped to encourage the foundation of Council of Europe. In 1956 he received the Charlemagne Prize for his contribution to European Union. Churchill is today listed as 1 of the “Founding Father of European Union”.

2-Second Turn as Prime Minister (1951-1955)

After the General Election of 10/1951, he became against Prime Minister. He also was minister of Defence from 10/1951 to 03/1952. Construction of council housing was accelerated & pensions & national assistant benefit were increased. However, charges for prescription medicines were introduced.

There were a series of foreign policy crises due to the decline of British military, imperial prestige & power. He dispatched British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion. In Malaya, a rebellion against British Rules had beginning progress since 1948, & choose to use direct military action against those in rebellion. While rebellion was being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer sustained

3-Stroke

He had a stroke on the evening of 23 June 1953. Despite he being partially paralysed down one side, he presided over the Cabinet meeting the next morning without anybody noticing his incapacity. News of this was kept from public & from the Parliament, who were told that Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. Aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Churchill at last retired as prime minister in 1955. He suffered another mild stroke in December 1956.

4-Retirement and death

Elizabeth II offered to create Churchill Duke of London, but he declined. He did, however accept a knighthood as Garter Knight. He lose his battle he had fought for so long against the so-called “Black Dog” of depression. JFK proclaimed him an Honorary Citizen of the US in 1963 but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony. He died at his London home at the age of 90, on the morning of Sunday 24/01/1965, 70 years to the day after his father's death.

5-Funeral

It's considered that Churchill's funeral was the largest state funeral in world history up to that point in time, with representatives from 112 nations; only China didn't send an emissary. In Europe 350 Millions people, including 25 millions of British, watched the funeral on TV. The funeral was at St Paul's Cathedral on 30/01/1965. Unusually the Queen attended the funeral. The Royal Artillery fired the 19-gun salute due a head of government, and the RAF staged a fly-by of sixteen English Electric Lightning fighters. Later in 1965, a memorial to Churchill, cut by the engraver Reynolds Stone, was placed in Westminster Abbey.

6-Artist, Historian and Writer

He was an accomplished artist. He found a haven in art to overcome the spells of depression which he suffered through his life. He mostly painted impressionist landscapes,&he had paint hundreds of painting using the pseudonym “Charles Morin”. He wrote 1 novel, 2 biographies, 3 volumes of memoirs & several histories.

7-Honours

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1941. He received a Nobel Prize of Literature in 1953. Churchill College was founded in 1958 in his honour in University of Cambridge. On the 29/11/1995, Bill Clinton announced to both Houses of Parliament that an Arleigh Burke-class

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